Diesel Fuel Cleanliness Analysis By Automatic Particle Counting {0680, 1250, 1280} Caterpillar


Diesel Fuel Cleanliness Analysis By Automatic Particle Counting {0680, 1250, 1280}

Usage:

MT700 018


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Introduction

Table 1
Revision  Summary of Changes in SEBF9180 
06  Added new serial number prefixes for New Product Introduction (NPI).
Updated copyright date to 2018.
Removed old Repair Process Engineering point of contacts.
Added new Repair Process Engineering point of contact.
Added Caterpillar confidential yellow statement to introduction.
Removed NENG2500 "Dealer Service Tool Catalog"from References table.
Added PERJ1017 "Dealer Service Tool Catalog" to References table. 
05  Updated Introduction.
Added "Think Safety" graphic.
Updated Reference Table.
Added 383-4255 Contamination Monitor Group to Tooling and Equipment. 
04  Updated Introduction.
Added Canceled Replaced Part Numbers statement.
Added Safety Information.
PEJT5025 canceled replaced by PEGJ0045. 
03  Added SEPD1173 to References.
Inserted a warning in the Preparation of Apparatus section.
Inserted the copyright line of text. 

© 2018 Caterpillar All Rights Reserved. This guideline is for the use of Cat dealers only. Unauthorized use of this document or the proprietary processes therein without permission may be violation of intellectual property law.

Information contained in this document is considered Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow.

This guideline enables dealers and customers to benefit from cost reductions which were made possible through an established Contamination Control Program. Fluids that are used in Caterpillar machines are highly effective unless the fluid contains damaging amounts of contaminates. Therefore, every effort must be made to reduce the contamination level within Caterpillar fluid systems. Caterpillar makes ongoing changes and improvements to the Caterpillar products. This guideline must be used with the latest technical information available from Caterpillar to ensure that such changes and improvements are incorporated when applicable.

For technical questions when using this document, work with your Dealer Technical Communicator (TC).

To report suspected errors, inaccuracies, or suggestions regarding the document, submit a form for feedback in the Service Information System (SIS Web) Interface.

Canceled Part Numbers and Replaced Part Numbers

This document may include canceled part numbers and replaced part numbers. Use NPR on SIS for information about canceled part numbers and replaced part numbers. NPR will provide the current part numbers for replaced parts.

Summary

Diesel fuel that is contaminated with debris and/or water is the primary cause of fuel system failures. Proper storage, handling, and filtration of diesel fuel minimizes the risk of fuel system failure due to contaminated fuel. Particle counting of diesel fuel is a quick and informative tool. Particle counting will evaluate the effectiveness of the storage, handling, and filtration processes by checking the fuel cleanliness.

Read and understand this procedure as well as any operating manuals for the equipment used in processing and or analyzing fuel samples.

Important Safety Information



Illustration 1g02139237

Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance, and repair are caused by failure to observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also have the necessary training, skills, and tools to perform these functions properly.

Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance, or repair of this product is dangerous. Improper methods could result in injury or death.

Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance, or repair of this product, until you understand the operation, lubrication, maintenance, and repair information. Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.

Hazards are identified by a safety alert symbol. Safety alert symbols are followed by a signal word such as "Warning" that is shown below.



Illustration 2g01032906

The following is the meaning of this safety alert symbol:

  • Pay attention!

  • Become alert!

  • Your safety is involved.

The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard. The message will be written or pictorially shown.

Operations that may cause product damage are identified by "NOTICE" labels on the product and in this publication.

Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. Therefore, the warnings in this publication and on the product are not all inclusive. If a tool, a procedure, a work method, or an operating technique that is not recommended by Caterpillar is used, ensure that the procedure is safe for all personnel around the machine. Also ensure that the product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance, or repair procedures.

All the information, specifications, and illustrations that are in this publication are based on information that was available at the time of publication. The following could change at any time: specifications, torque, pressures, measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items. These changes can affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the most current and complete information before you start any job. Caterpillar dealers have the most current information that is available.

Safety

------ WARNING! ------

Sudden movement of the machine or release of oil under pressure can cause injury to persons on or near the machine.

To prevent possible injury, perform the procedure that follows before testing and adjusting the steering system.


------ WARNING! ------

Personal injury can result from hydraulic oil pressure and hot oil.

Hydraulic oil pressure can remain in the hydraulic system after the engine has been stopped. Serious injury can be caused if this pressure is not released before any service is done on the hydraulic system.

Make sure all of the attachments have been lowered, oil is cool before removing any components or lines. Remove the oil filler cap only when the engine is stopped, and the filler cap is cool enough to touch with your bare hand.



NOTICE

Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, PERJ1017, "Dealer Service Tool Catalog" for tools and supplies suitable to collect and contain fluids on Cat® products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and mandates.


References

Table 2
Changes to the Usage and Cleaning of the Contamination group 
Media Number  Title 
PEGJ0045  Reporting Particle Count by ISO Code(1) 
SEBD9665  Engine News, "Changes to the Usage and Cleaning of the Contamination Monitor Group" 
SEPD1173  Service Magazine, "Changes to the Usage and Cleaning of the Contamination Monitor Group" 
PERJ1017  Dealer Service Tool Catalog 
(1) This product bulletin gives a good explanation of ISO code ratings

Table 3
ISO 4406: Hydraulic Fluid Power Solid Contamination Code 
ISO Code  Number of Particles per 1 ml (0.034 oz) of Fluid 
More Than Up to & Including 
28  1,300,000  6,000,000 
27  640,000  1,300,000 
26  320,000  640,000 
25  160,000  320,000 
24  80,000  160,000 
23  40,000  80,000 
22  20,000  40,000 
21  10,000  20,000 
20  5,000  10,000 
19  2,500  5,000 
18(1)  1,300  2,500 
17  640  1,300 
16(2)  320  640 
15(1)  160  320 
14  80  160 
13(2)  40  80 
12  20  40 
11  10  20 
10  10 
2.0 
1.3  2.5 
0.64  1.3 
0.32  0.64 
0.16  0.32 
0.08  0.16 
0.04  0.08 
0.02  0.04 
0.01  0.02 
0.00  0.01 
(1) Caterpillar specification for roll-off or in-service oil.
(2) Caterpillar specification for fill oil.

Tooling and Equipment

Table 4
Quantity  Description 
170-8500 S40 Particle Analyzer Groupor 293-8413 HYDAC Contamination Monitor Group or 383-4255 HYDAC Contamination Monitor Group 
169-7372 Clean Sample Bottle or 321-0659 Clean Sample Bottle(1) 
202-2301 Portable Contamination Control Kit 
Ultrasonic Bath (www.sonicsonline.com) 
100 ml (3.4 oz)  Filtered kerosene per oil sample (free of water) 
0.45 micron x 25 mm (0.98 inch) filter patch 
Mechanical Shaker Tornado II (www.blairequipment.com) 
Low Lint Towels (162-5791 or 265-2256
1U-5718 Oil Sampling Vacuum Pump 
(1) For use with the 293-8413 HYDAC Contamination Monitor Group and 383-4255 HYDAC Contamination Monitor Group

Recommendations



Illustration 3g01414016

The ultra sonic bath should meet the minimum specifications listed in Table 5. There are several different brands available and can usually be purchased at the local retail stores. For example, the specifications in Table 5 are for a Bransonic model B200 and can be purchased on-line through the manufacturer. Refer to Illustration 3.

Table 5
Specifications for Bransonic model B200 Ultra Sonic Bath 
Model Number  B200, 117V, 60Hz  B200, 220V, 50/60Hz 
Tank Capacity  444 ml (15 oz)  444 ml (15 oz) 
Tank Dimensions  6 1/2"L x 3 1/2"W x 2 3/4"D  6 1/2"L x 3 1/2"W x 2 1/4"D 
Overall Dimensions  8 3/4"L x 4 1/2"W x 5"D  8 3/4"L x 4 1/2"W x 5"D 
Shipping Weight  13 N (3 lb)  13 N (3 lb) 
Bransonic Part Number  100-951-010  100-951-011 

Interferences Inherent In the Fuel Sample

APC - APC refers to Automatic Particle Counter.

  • Free water droplets or globules of emulsified water are counted as particles by the APC.

  • Undissolved particles from fuel additives are counted as particles by the APC.

  • Undissolved additives in the diesel fuel that are detected by the APC are counted as particles.

  • Wax crystals that form in diesel fuels at or below the cloud point temperature of the fuel are counted as particles by the APC. Testing the fuel at temperatures above the cloud point eliminates this interference.

  • Certain chemicals, namely sterol glucosides, form solid precipitates in biodiesel as the biodiesel sits in storage. The rate of precipitation of sterol glucosides increases with respect to cold storage temperatures and storage time. These solid particles are large enough to be counted as particles by the APC

  • Excessive concentrations of particles and water in the fuel will cause coincidence and/or electronic saturation errors with the APC or damage the APC. Limits are determined by ISO 11171 and are supplied by the instrument manufacturer. Fuels with high levels of contamination are typically determined as unfit to process.

Note: Biodiesel samples should be analyzed as soon as possible after the sample has been taken. Prompt analyzing of the sample will limit the possibility of skewed cleanliness results due to the formation of precipitates after the sample is taken.

Interferences From Improper Sampling

  • This method is not restrictive to the environment in which particle counting is performed. An important fact to consider is the contribution of airborne debris in a field environment. Ensure that proper contamination control procedures are followed to limit the impact of unwanted debris on the particle count result.

  • Dirty sample containers or improper sampling procedures can introduce external contamination that is then counted as contamination inherent in the fuel. Use clean sample containers and proper sampling methods. For the best representation of what is being added to diesel equipment, collect a sample directly from the fill nozzle.

Interferences Resulting From Improper Testing

  • Air bubbles that are present in the sample are counted as particles by the particle counter. Proper degassing of the sample with an ultrasonic bath minimizes the impact of air bubbles.

  • Fuel samples that are allowed to sit for more than the allowed time interval will have particles settle out to the bottom of the sample bottle. The low viscosity of fuel potentially gives cleanliness results higher or lower than the true cleanliness. The results depend on how the particle counter draws in the sample fuel.

  • Liquid Automatic Particle Counter (APC) - Liquid optical particle counter, such as the Caterpillar's 170-8500 S40 Particle Analyzer Group, is based on the light extinction principle. The instrument capability should record the size and number of particles as the particles pass across the detector. At a minimum, the particle counter must provide particle count results for particles ≥4 µm(c), ≥6 µm(c), ≥14 µm(c) as reported per ISO 4406:1999. The particle counter will include bottle sampling capability that automatically delivers a predetermined volume of specimen at a controlled flow rate to the sensing zone of the analyzer. The particle counter must be calibrated per ISO 11171 within the time requirements made by the instrument manufacturer.


Illustration 4g01618976
Ultrasonic Bath

  • Ultrasonic Bath - A bath that creates ultrasonic waves. Waves increase the rate at which air bubbles rise in the fuel sample and also cause the explosion of air bubbles within the fuel sample. The bath aids in a quick removal of air introduced during the shaking of the fuel sample. A bath with a power rating of 3,000-10,000 W/m2 is recommended. Fill the ultrasonic bath with enough water to reach at least three-fourths of the way up the sample bottles used in the procedure. Reference Bransonic model B200. Refer to Illustration 4.

  • Mechanical Shaker - Shaker used for shaking fuel samples collected in a large container, prior to splitting into smaller bottles to be used for particle counting. The mechanical shaker can also be used to shake smaller sample containers or bottles if desired. Reference Tornado II Portable Mechanical Shaker.

  • Sample Container - Container used for collecting the fuel sample that has not been previously used for holding a different fluid sample. A recommended container is the 169-7372 Sample Bottle or the 321-0659 Sample Bottle. Polycarbonate bottles should be avoided.

  • Highly Filtered Solvent - The fluid, such as kerosene or mineral spirits, that is used to flush the particle counter.

  • Low-Lint Towel - Disposable towels that are used for cleaning the outside surface of sample bottles or sample tubing on the APC. Recommended towel is Caterpillar part number 162-5791 or 265-2256.

Preparation of Apparatus

------ WARNING! ------

The Contamination Monitor Group is only to be used to analyze fluids with a flash point equal to or higher than 55° C (131° F). There is a remote possibility of fluids with a flash point lower than 55° C (131° F) catching on fire if analyzed in the Contamination Monitor Group.

Personal injury or death can result when fluids ignite unexpectantly.

Do not use the Contamination Monitor Group with fluids that have a flash point lower than 55° C (131° F).



NOTICE

Read and understand the safety literature and operating instructions for the Contamination Monitor group. Proper safety equipment is to be worn during the operation of the Contamination Monitor group.


  1. Perform any APC-specific setup procedures according to the instrument manufacturer operating manual.

  2. Ensure that the ISO 4406: mode of operation is selected and displayed. If the APC has printing capabilities, ensure that the printouts are also set to ISO 4406:1999.

  3. Set the APC flow-rate within the working range as determined for the sensor in ISO 11171 Annex C. Do not modify the flow rate in a manner that is outside of the calibrated range. Due to the tendency of larger particles to drop out of the low viscosity fuel rather quickly, a flow rate on the upper end of the working range, such as 50 mL/min (1.70 oz/min), is preferred.

  4. If the APC can run a pre-set program, set the APC to flush 10 mL (0.34 oz) to 25 mL (0.85 oz) of sample prior to analysis. Then run three analyses consecutively of at least 5 mL (0.17 oz) per run. If the APC cannot run a preset flush, set the APC to run four analyses consecutively of at least 5 mL (0.17 oz) per run.

    Note: The preferred setting is a 20 mL (0.68 oz) flush followed by three consecutive runs of 10 mL (0.34 oz) each.

  5. If the APC requires 40 mL (1.36 oz) or more of the sample fuel to perform a single analysis, performing one analysis and reporting the results is acceptable. However, if decisions related to failure analysis, filtration effectiveness, or similar topics, are to be made based on the fuel cleanliness results, perform a second analysis of the same fuel sample. Perform the second analysis from either the same sample bottle or from a different sample bottle filled with the fuel sample question. The analysis shall be averaged to determine the sample cleanliness.

  6. With a clean, low lint towel, wipe off the sample inlet tubing or any other materials of the APC that will directly contact the sample fluid.

  7. If the fluid last analyzed by the APC was excessively dirty (counts/mL ≥4 µm(c) measurement of over 40,000 particles) or of unknown origin, flush and/or back-flush the APC according to the manufacturer instructions with highly filtered solvent as recommended by the APC manufacturer.

  8. Prior to beginning the process in the "Procedure" section, perform any preparatory steps required by the APC according to the instrument manufacturer operating manual, such as entering the sample name. The APC must be ready for immediate analysis before beginning the procedure.

Fuel Sample Preparation

    Note: When the collected fuel sample is below the cloud point and/or gelled due to cold temperatures, the sample must be warmed back up to liquid state prior to beginning analysis. Fuel below the cloud point may contain wax crystals that will be counted as particles by the APC. Gelled fuel has a high viscosity and can either clog the particle counter, or will give erroneous cleanliness results. Always ensure that the temperature of the fuel is above the cloud point prior to analyzing with this method. To determine the cloud point temperature, refer to fuel supplier specifications.

  1. Obtain the fuel sample to be analyzed. Inspect the sample container for any signs of defects such as cracks or leaking areas. If defects are found, the fuel sample is to be transferred to a different sample container free of defects.

  2. Inspect the fuel sample for the presence of excess visible debris or a phase-separated water layer. If either of these contaminants are present in the sample, do not particle count the sample per this method. Use of this method can damage the particle counter or will cause coincidence and/or electronic saturation errors. The fuel sample will be considered to have an unacceptable cleanliness level.

  3. If the fuel sample is not going to be analyzed in the original container in which the sample was collected, follow the next steps transfer the sample into a sample bottle appropriate for the APC.

    Note: If fuel sample transfer is not needed due to any of the reasons below, continue to the "Procedure" section.

  4. Secure the original container in the mechanical shaker by use of a clamp. If needed, secure the container inside a larger container that can be clamped into place by the mechanical shaker.

  5. Mechanically shake the sample for 2 minutes

  6. Immediately remove the sample container from the mechanical shaker. Open the sample container and immediately pour a small amount into the sample bottle that will be used for analysis with the APC. Attach the lid and shake the sample bottle vigorously for 15 seconds to rinse the inside of the sample bottle. Remove sample bottle lid and dispose of the contents in an appropriate manner. Immediately pour the fuel to be sampled from the container that was shaken by the mechanical shaker into the sample bottle that was rinsed.

    Note: Where possible, avoid the use of glassware or similar transfer materials to get the fuel from the sample container into the sample bottle. Glassware or similar transfer materials can add outside contamination to the fuel sample.

Procedure

    Note: Prior to performing the analysis with the APC, be sure to read and understand all the interferences listed in the "Interferences Inherent In the Fuel Sample" section of this document. Ensure that all precautions have been taken to minimize the affect of skewed results due to improper sampling, handling, or preparation.

  1. Obtain the fuel sample to be analyzed in an appropriate sample bottle as described in the "Fuel Sample Preparation" section. Manually or mechanically shake the sample vigorously for 30 seconds. When manually shaking a sample, ensure thorough mixing of the sample by turning the bottle so that the lid is facing downward. Shake by moving the wrist and/or forearm up and down as rapidly as is comfortable for the 30 seconds.

    Note: Degassing samples can be accomplished with either the use of an ultrasonic bath or with the use of a vacuum pump.

  2. Immediately degas the sample, by partially opening the lid to the bottle and placing the sample upright in the degassing unit. Perform only one of the degassing methods. An ultrasonic bath is the best method for degassing a sample. An ultrasonic bath takes the least amount of time minimizing the impact of particle settling.

    Note: The purpose of partially unscrewing or opening the lid is to promote quick degassing of the sample. Air bubbles to remaining near the surface of the sample following the degassing process are acceptable.



    Illustration 5g01741117

  3. If an ultrasonic bath is unavailable, an alternative method of degassing the sample is with the use of a 1U-5718 Oil Sampling Vacuum Pump. Ensure the 1U-5718 Oil Sampling Vacuum Pump is clean before beginning the degas process.

    Note: Rubber is to be placed over the hole of the tubing for the pump to develop and hold the required vacuum.

  4. With the sample to be analyzed in the sample bottle, thread the bottle into the bottom of the 1U-5718 Oil Sampling Vacuum Group. Operate the pump to create a vacuum. Maintain the vacuum until all air bubbles have risen to the surface of the sample and dissipated.

  5. If an ultrasonic bath or a vacuum pump is not available, the sample can degas naturally. Degas the sample by setting the sample on a flat surface and leaving the sample undisturbed. If the APC performs a flushing cycle, let the sample sit for 15 seconds. If the APC does not perform a flushing cycle, such as the 293-8413 HYDAC Contamination Monitor Group or the 383-4255 HYDAC Contamination Monitor Group, let the sample sit for 30 seconds. Proceed to the "Sample Processing" section.

Sample Processing

  1. Remove the lid from the sample bottle. Immediately begin the processing of the sample on the APC that has been prepared according to the "Fuel Sample Preparation" section.

    Note: If more than 45 seconds elapse after the shaking of the sample, the procedure shall be restarted with shaking of the sample in "Fuel Sample Preparation" section. Shaking the sample ensures that suspended particles do not settle to the bottom of the sample, causing inaccurate particle count results.

  2. Obtain the particle count results with the number of analyses/samples determined per "Preparation of Apparatus" section.

  3. Average the particle size cumulative count if the particle counter performed multiple consecutive analyses.

  4. Compare the particle count to the coincidence error limit specified by the APC manufacturer. If the sample exceeds this limit, the sample is considered highly contaminated. Appropriate actions shall be taken as necessary at the source of the fuel to improve the cleanliness.

  5. If the resulting ISO 4406 Code for ≥4 µm(c)/≥6 µm(c)/ ≥14 µm(c) gives results with the same numbers in all three size ranges, such as ISO 19/19/19, or if the ISO Code (and therefore particles/mL) increases rather than decreases while going to a larger size range, such as ISO 19/20/17, the sample was either contaminated with water or excess air bubbles. The sample is to be reanalyzed and/or tested for water content.

  6. Report the cleanliness results. Refer to the "Report" section.

  7. Perform extra fuel sample analyses as needed. If any fuel sample tested is excessively dirty (counts/mL ≥4 µm(c) measurement of over 40,000 particles), flush and/or back-flush the APC according to the manufacturer instructions with highly filtered solvent or clean fuel.

  8. At the end of the testing day or prior to testing a different type of fluid such as hydraulic oil, flush the particle counter with highly filtered solvent or clean flush fluid of the type to be tested per the instrument manufacturers recommended procedures.

Report

Report the following information for samples analyzed.

  • The sample identification, including information on the type of diesel fuel, the location from which the sample was taken, the date the sample was taken, and the date the analysis was performed.

  • Average particle size cumulative counts per mL or per 100 mL (3.40000 oz), consisting of all size ranges measured by the particle counter, such as ≥4 µm(c), ≥6 µm(c), ≥14 µm(c), ≥21 µm(c), ≥38 µm(c) and ≥70 µm(c).

  • ISO code result, according to ISO 4406: for ≥4 µm(c), ≥6 µm(c), ≥14 µm(c).

  • Any deviation, by agreement or otherwise, from the specified procedures.

  • In cases of dispute also report information related to the APC instrument and any settings that deviate from settings given in this document.

ISO 4406: Method for Coding the Level of Contaminates by Solid Particles

ISO is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies. The ISO 4406: specifies the code to be used in defining the quantity of solid particles in the fluid. This ISO code is used in any given hydraulic fluid power system. An automatic particle counter derives the equivalent size of a particle from the cross sectional area of the particle. Particle counts are affected by various factors. These factors include: procurement of the sample, the sample container, particle counting accuracy used, and the particle count cleanliness. Proper care should be taken during the sample procurement to ensure that the sample obtained is representative of the fluid circulating in the system.

The code for contamination levels using automatic particle counters is composed of three scale numbers. Example: X/Y/Z

"X" - The number of particles that is equal to or larger than 4 microns.

"Y" - The number of particles that is equal to or larger than 6 microns.

"Z" - The number of particles that is equal or larger than 14 microns

Currently Caterpillar does not require the reporting of the "X" scale number since the hydraulic tolerances exceed the 4 micron value. Therefore a "-" is used in place of the "X". For example, a particle count is read as -/Y/Z, meaning that there was no requirement to count particles equal to or larger than 4 microns.

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